Viewpoint Robustness of Automated Facial Action Unit Detection Systems


Automatic facial action detection is important, but no previous studies have evaluated pre-trained models on the accuracy of facial action detection as the angle of the face changes from frontal to profile. Using static facial images obtained at various angles (0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°), we investigated the performance of three automated facial action detection systems (FaceReader, OpenFace, and Py-feat). The overall performance was best for OpenFace, followed by FaceReader and Py-Feat. The performance of FaceReader significantly decreased at 45° compared to that at other angles, while the performance of Py-Feat did not differ among the four angles. The performance of OpenFace decreased as the target face turned sideways. Prediction accuracy and robustness to angle changes varied with the target facial components and action detection system.

Applied Sciences.
Shushi Namba
Shushi Namba
Associate Professor

My research interests include distributed facial expression,computational modeling and programmable matter.